The following post highlights some of the key points provided in the most recent position paper on Nutrition and Athletic Performance. It should be noted that this position paper was produced based on the the current state of the literature and that an Evidence Analysis Process (American Dietetic Association) was utilized to standardize this review.
This paper was jointly provided by the Dietitians of Canada, the American College of Sports Medicine, and the American Dietetic Association, and it was their position that physical activity, athletic performance, and recovery from exercise are enhanced by optimal nutrition. These organizations recommend appropriate selection of food and fluids, timing of intake, and supplement choices for optimal health and exercise performance.
Highlights of this Position paper
Carbohydrate recommendations: 6-10g/kg (2.7-4.5 g/lb) BW per day or ~60% of total energy intake
Protein recommendations: 1.2-1.7 g/kg (0.5-0.8 g/lb) BW per day
Fat recommendations: 20%-35% of total energy intake.
Dehydration occurs when there is a water deficit > 2%-3% body mass.
Fuel during exercise: carbohydrates approx. 30-60g per hour especially in endurance events
After Exercise: carbohydrates approx. 1.0-1.5 g/kg (0.5-0.7 g/lb) BW during first 30 min. Also every 2 hours for 4 to 6 hours
Multivitamin/mineral supplement may be appropriate if athlete is dieting, lacking in a particular food group, sick or injured, or has a specific deficiency. Athletic vegetarians may be at risk for low intakes of energy, protein, fat and key micronutrients (i.e. iron, calcium, vit. D, riboflavin, zinc, and B-12). Therefore, athletes who are at greatest risk for poor micronutrient status and MAY benefit from a daily supplement are those:
Who restrict energy intake or have severe weight loss practices
Who eliminate one or more of the food groups from their diet
Who consume unbalanced and low macronutrient dense diets
Endurance athletes may require much more than the tolerable upper intake level for sodium (2.3g/day) and chloride (3.6 g/day).
Sports drinks containing 0.5-0.7 g/L of sodium and 0.8-2.0 g/L of potassium, as well as carbohydrates are recommended for endurance sports > 2hr
Classification of Supplements and Ergogenic Aids
Those that perform as claimed
That may perform as claimed by evidence is still insufficient
That DO NOT perform as claimed
That are dangerous, banned or illegal
Therefore, female, vegetarian athletes may be at greater risk for developing iron deficiency anemia and need routine monitoring